Symbol Platinum

Symbol Platinum Dateiverwendung

Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine. File:Platinum-symbol pensionatstenshuvud.se ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. Platin ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Platin ist ein schweres, schmiedbares. Das chemische Symbol für Platin im Periodensystem ist Pt. In Wirklichkeit ist diese Geringschätzung keineswegs gerechtfertigt, verfügt Platin doch über.

Symbol Platinum

Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine. Das chemische Symbol für Platin im Periodensystem ist Pt. In Wirklichkeit ist diese Geringschätzung keineswegs gerechtfertigt, verfügt Platin doch über. Platin ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Platin ist ein schweres, schmiedbares.

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Diese Gebühren können sowohl im Inland als auch im Ausland unterschiedlich ausfallen. Zeitgleich erwachte das Interesse an diesem Material und man isolierte weitere Platinbegleitmetalle wie Rhodium und Iridium. Heute wird für diesen Zweck wegen der Asbestproblematik Platin-Quarzwolle eingesetzt.

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Platinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt and an atomic number of Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, which is literally translated into "little silver".

It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal. Platinum has six naturally occurring isotopes.

It is the least reactive metal. As a member of the platinum group of elements, as well as of the group 10 of the periodic table of elements, platinum is generally non-reactive.

It exhibits a remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and as such is considered a noble metal.

As a result, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.

It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it became investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Because only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, and is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.

Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance, it is not as toxic as some metals.

Compounds containing platinum, most notably cisplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. Graphical characteristics: Symmetric , Closed shape , Monochrome , Contains both straight and curved lines , Has no crossing lines.

Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.

Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.

The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.

These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC.

For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.

It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.

Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic. Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize.

This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.

Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them.

Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.

Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [72] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth.

Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.

Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin. See also: Platinum album and Platinum color.

Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.

Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications. Thomson Gale.

Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R. January Handbook of corrosion data.

Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. New Scientist.

Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations. International Labour Organization. ASTM International. Alaska Community Database Online.

Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 12 April Minerals Engineering. Grant Cawthorn Platinum Metals Review.

Retrieved 24 December Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 9 September July Archived PDF from the original on 7 July Retrieved 17 July The Hindu.

Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 December Meteorites: flux with time and impact effects. Greenwood Press. Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Inorganic Chemistry. Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. Bibcode : Natur. Inorganica Chimica Acta. Chemical Communications.

Solid State Sciences. Bibcode : SSSci Journal of Physical Chemistry C. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Chemical Society Reviews. Saux III 7 July Practical Oncology Protocols.

Mill City Press, Incorporated.

Weiterhin kann es sein, dass Interessenten ein Mindesteinkommen vorweisen müssen. Sein Hofgoldschmied Marc Etienne Janety schuf ihm daraus Casino Mage P4wnyhof Objekte, unter anderem ein Kennozahlen Service mit kobaltblauem Email. Auch viele Oxide reagieren mit Platin, weshalb auch nur bestimmte Werkstoffe als Tiegelmaterial eingesetzt Top 100 Brettspiele können. Es ist daher für viele industrielle Anwendungen interessant. Einerseits ist es edelmetalltypisch chemisch träge, andererseits hochreaktiv, katalytisch-selektiv gegenüber bestimmten Substanzen und Reaktionsbedingungen. Schon ein ungefähr prozentiger Platinanteil führt zu einer hellgrauen Farbe. Mundijuegos besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und gilt als Edelmetall. Zirkonoxid dotiert, um ein vorzeitiges Kornwachstum bei den Platingeräten im Glasschmelzprozess zu verhindern. Special Kreditkarten. Wenn nicht anders vermerkt, gelten die angegebenen Daten bei Standardbedingungen. Spannring Menorca. Platin kommt Tipico Konto Wieder Entsperren in Form chemischer Verbindungen in zahlreichen Mineralen vor. Diese Gebühr kann zwischen und Euro liegen und ist damit deutlich höher als bei goldenen Kreditkarten. In der Folgezeit geriet das kostbare Element zunehmend Green Latern Online Vergessenheit und es sollte über ein Jahrtausend dauern, bis Platin wieder zu seiner verdienten Anerkennung Book Of Ra Torrent. Platinkarten sind dank ihrer silbernen Färbung schnell zu erkennen. As a soft acidplatinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO ; numerous DMSO complexes Noble Casino Games been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Platinum is an extremely rare metal, [20] occurring at a concentration of only 0. Platinum II and platinum Pool Shark bromides are known as well. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev.

It occurs free and in association with other platinum metals, esp in osmiridium: used in jewellery, laboratory apparatus, electrical contacts, dentistry, electroplating, and as a catalyst.

Symbol: Pt; atomic no: 78; atomic wt: Word Origin for platinum C New Latin, from platina , on the model of other metals with the suffix -um. A ductile malleable metallic element usually occurring mixed with other metals such as iridium, osmium, or nickel and used as a catalyst and in dentistry.

Atomic number Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. A soft, ductile, malleable, silver-white metallic element that usually occurs with osmium, iridium, palladium, or nickel.

It has a high melting point and does not corrode in air. Platinum is used as a catalyst and in making jewelry, electrical contacts, and dental crowns.

Atomic number 78; atomic weight See Periodic Table. All rights reserved. Need A Tutor? Find One Here! Copper and cobalt are also commonly alloyed with platinum for polishing ability and color.

Just 5 percent of an alloy metal can give soft platinum the necessary hardness for a ring, according to 1 Wedding Band. Platinum content markings are based on parts per thousand of pure platinum in the ring.

According to the Federal Trade Commission, in the United States, "Platinum" without additional qualifications can only be used to mark and describe rings made with at least parts pure platinum throughout.

Abbreviation marks for other PGMs include: "Plat. Hallmarks and maker's marks help identify the origin of antique and period platinum rings.

Hallmarks, also known as quality or purity marks, guarantee the purity or quality of a precious metal. They are expressed with numbers, symbols, letters or a combination thereof stamped, impressed or struck on platinum to indicate its fineness, according to Modern Silver Magazine.

English and French jewelry makers have used hallmarks since the 14th century, but American makers have never used them on platinum per se.

French jewelry makers utilized the eagle head and dog head hallmarks for platinum after , when they formally recognized it as a precious metal.

Hallmarks may include maker's marks—the proprietary mark of a smith—expressed by a name or artistic mark stamped on the piece.

According to the FTC, it is unlawful to use the word "platinum," or the names of any of the other PGM metals or their abbreviations, to describe a ring if the marking or description misrepresents the product's true composition.

Misleading marks include: using "Platinum," "Plat," or "Pt.

Symbol Platinum Allerdings werden Platinkatalysatoren schnell durch Alterung und Verunreinigungen inaktiv vergiftet. Das Platinbegleitmetall Palladium wird dabei entdeckt. Bei Platin-Kreditkarten ist dieser Service meist kostenlos — es gibt jedoch auch einige Anbieter, bei welchen zusätzliche Gebühren auf Sie zukommen. Ansonsten entsteht Platin auch als Nebenprodukt bei der Raffination von Nickel, wodurch es in Russland und Kanada gewonnen wird. Aufgrund ihrer Verfügbarkeit Wimmelbilder Kostenlos Online Ohne Anmeldung der hervorragenden Eigenschaften gibt es für Platin Schminkspiele Kostenlos Platinlegierungen zahlreiche unterschiedliche Einsatzgebiete. Livechat öffnen. Beste Möglichkeit ist das flammenfreie elektrisch-induktive Heizen des Schmelzgutes in Zirkonoxidkeramiken.

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